I have a doctor on board
Mae West, Magazine, Magnetic, Main, Mainmast, Mainsail, Mainsheet, Make, Making way, Mall, Mallet, Man, Manger board, Manifest, Manoeuvre, Man overboard, Manrope, Map, Marconi, Marina, Marine, Mariner, Maritime, Mark, Marking yarn, Marks and deeps, Marl, Marline, Marling, Marling spike, Maroon, Marry, MARPOL, Martingale, Mast, Master, Masthead light, Maul, MCA, Mean, Mediterranean, Mercator's projection, Merchant, Mercury, Meridian, Mesh, Mess, Messenger, Meteorology, Middle watch, Midship, Midshipman, Mine, Minute, Missile, Miss stays, Mist, Mizzen, MMSI, MOB, Moderate, Mole, Monkey, brass, Monkey's fist, Monocular Monohull, Monsoon, Moon, Moonraker, Mooring, Mooring block, Morning, Mortar, Motor, Mould, Mouse, Muster, Mutiny, Muzzle,
During World War II, Allied aircrews called their yellow inflatable, vest-like life preserver jackets "Mae Wests" partly from rhyming slang for "breast" and "life vest" and partly because of their resemblance to the racy actress' ample torso.
A "Mae West" is also a type of malfunction of a round parachute (partial inversion) which contorts the shape of the canopy into the appearance of an extraordinarily large brassiere.
The gridlines (usually latitude and longitude lines) of a nautical chart are orientated to True North and South. Bearings (in degrees Magnetic) derived from a magnetic compass must, therefore, be converted to degrees True before being plotted on a chart. The difference, in degrees of arc, between a True bearing and a magnetic bearing is known as variation.
The magnetic compass is also affected by the electromagnetic equipment and ferrous metals aboard ship. This effect is known as deviation. All vessels should have a deviation card on board which shows the degree of deviation of the compass on different headings. Deviation is measured as the difference between the magnetic heading and the compass heading when the ship is swung for the compass.
Magnets were first used in navigation around the 12th century.
An adjective describing the principal or predominant item as opposed to something lesser.
The mainland is greater than a nearby island.
The mainmast is taller, or more important, than the other masts.
Where the context is clear the adjective is often nominalised: so the 'main mast' may become the 'main' if everyone is referring to masts.
In a square-rigged vessel there are two mainsheets; one attached to the clew (for the time being) being used as a sheet; the one attached to the tack (for the time being) sometimes being used as a tackline.
vb coll To make way is to move forward through the water.
But see 'underway'.
To make water is to leak.
An interesting phrase used, but not defined, in the IRPCS.
It probably means that a vessel is moving through the water under its own power.
n The North American word for a shopping precinct, often restricted to pedestrians and often covered against the weather.
A wooden or leather hammer, used for hammering wood.
Metal hammers bruise and split wood; mallets are springy and resilient and cause less damage than metal hammers.
Often, in the past, used to mean 'ship' even though, in those days, ships were feminine.
n A male human being (in the UK, over the age of 18).
Others, such as entering a new marina, may be specific to the situation.
Marconi is not a synonym for Bermudan.
A commercial harbour with floating pontoons for mooring boats. Ashore, there are restaurants, shower & toilet buildings, repair & storage yards, chandleries and services: afloat, there is usually a fuel bunker on a floating pontoon. The services (which may be owned by the marina or may be franchised) include boat repair, craneage, engine replacement & repair.
Marinas cater for long-term tenants, usually on annual leases, but offer facilities by the day or week to visiting yachts.
n A member of the Royal Marines Corps (or, in the USA, the United States Marine Corps), which is an elite infantry unit trained for service afloat and ashore.
adj Describing a relationship with the sea, as in marine biology, the biology of life in the sea.
One who sails on the sea: a sailor.
adj pertaining to sea-related activities.
One might refer to 'maritime law' not 'marine law'.
Often included in yacht ropes so that lines with different uses can be distinguished quickly.
See also: Rogue yarn
Marks and deeps
n A hand lead line is 20 fathoms long, divided into 20 equal parts. There are 9 marks, at 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 20 fathoms, and 7 deeps (absence of mark) at 1, 4, 8, 9, 14, 18 and 19 fathoms. A depth of 7 fathoms is called as “by the mark seven”. A depth of 9 fathoms (for which there is no mark) is called as “by the deep nine”. A depth of 5.5 fathoms would be called as “and a half five”. A depth of 12.75 fathoms would be called as “and a quarter less thirteen”.
During the Age of Sail the word 'deep' meant 'unknown', 'mysterious'. The concept of depth, as we now understand it, was poorly perceived. 'Plumbing the depths' (lowering a lead weight on a line into the unknown) was a means of fixing a position. See also 'Sounding'.
Marling is more secure than seizing with continuous spiral turns because if one turn is broken the whole marling will not unravel.
More often, during the Age of Sail, mutineers were hanged summarily. A crew which mutinied successfully might maroon their officers rather than kill them in the (usually vain) hope that their ultimate punishment would be less harsh. All mutineers knew that the Royal Navy would spare no expense or time in bringing them before the courts as an example to others: they would then attempt to argue that they had been justified in removing their officers but that they had not harmed them.
n The explosive flares sent up by the coastguard or the RNLI to summon their people to rescue distressed mariners. The red emergency flares sent up by mariners to summon help may also be known as maroons.
vb To marry two lines (according to Falconer) was to join them end to end and attach them together by stitching and worming. The join would be no thicker than any other part of the two lines. The purpose was to allow the old ha'lyard to draw the new, replacement, ha'lyard through the blocks
vb Again, according to Falconer, to marry two lines by joining them with what we would now call a long splice.
vb A contract of relationship between two cohabiting people.
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
n The rope which extends from the end of the jib-boom around a vertical b'mkin under the bowsprit to hold down the outer end of the jib-boom, in the same way that a bobstay holds down the bowsprit, against the upward pull of a forestay.
Until the 20th Century masts were built of wood in several parts. The lowermost part, from the keel, through the deck to the first top, was, simply, the mast. The next one up, the topmast, overlapped the mast (to which it was attached) and continued up to the second top. The third part, attached to the top of the topmast, was the topgallant mast. The uppermost mast was the royal mast. Each mast had its own yards, sails, shrouds and stays associated with each part.
Where the mast of a gaff-rigged vessel was constructed in one long part (usually from one tree!) it was called a 'pole mast'.
Now (early C21) most masts are made of steel or aluminium and may be as long (tall) as necessary.
Modern techniques of glueing and scarphing allow wooden masts to be constructed as long (tall) as necessary without the need for several parts.
IRPCS Rule 21, “Definitions”, says: "
(a)”Masthead light” means a white light placed on the fore and aft centre-line of the vessel showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 225 degrees and so fixed as to show the light from right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on either (each; both) side of the vessel.”
It is not a riding light.
Anchor (riding) lights are all-round lights; they are often at the top of the mast, but not ahead of it; they are not masthead lights.
A person who takes charge of a vessel in the absence of the captain, and who shares the captain's duties when at sea.
There may be first, second and third mates, depending on the size of the ship. In modern times they may be called first, second and third officers.
The word implies an assistant. So the bo's'n may have a bo's'n's mate; the carpenter may have one or more carpenter's mates.
Colloquially, one might call a close acquaintance who may not be a friend "mate".
Biologically, a mate is one of the opposite sex with offspring in common.
At one time, a large iron hammer used for driving bolts and drifts.
Now, a form of mallet with a conic cylindrical shape.
The arithmetic average.
The sum of all the variables divided by the number of variables. Eg, the average of the six numbers 8, 12, 4, 19, 7, 6 is 8+12+4+19+7+6 = 56÷8=7.
Mean sea level is the average sea level.
Mean High Water Springs (MHWS) is the average of the high water tide of all spring tides.
Falconer (1815) defined mean as "a middle state between two extremes": a middle value is now known as a median value.
Coll; A person is mean if they are reluctant to pay the price, or if they are sneaky or unpleasant.
Meaning 'in the middle of the land'.
The sea enclosed by Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Albania Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israil, Gaza, Egypt, Lybia, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. It opens into the North Atlantic by the Straight of Gibraltar and into the Sea of Marmara by the Dardanelles. It is connected to the Red Sea by the man-made Suez Canal.
Nautical charts are representations, on a flat piece of paper, of the 3-dimensionally curved surface of the earth. Where the area to be represented is small (say, a harbour) the distortions of scale are trivial. Where the areas are large (say, the British Isles) the distortions become significant. Mercator was a 16th Century mathematician and geographer who devised a projection of the curved surface of the earth onto a flat map so that rhumb lines drawn on the map would appear as straight lines. This distortion kept the parallels of latitude parallel, but made them all (including the poles!) equal in length. His equation made the meridians of longitude parallel instead of converging at the poles. Features at the Equator are accurately represented, and the scales become more distorted as one approaches the poles. On the earth the poles are points with no length in any direction: Mercators projection turned the poles into parallels of latitude the same length as all the other parallels.
Mercator published his first projections in 1556.
Because of the distortions, rhumb lines on Mercator's projection become straight lines; this is, perhaps, the most valuable feature of Mercator’s projection.
Navigators (before Mercator) followed rhumb lines by keeping a constant compass course: unless this course followed the Equator or a meridian the line spiralled around the globe until it infinitesimally approached one of the magnetic poles. By following a compass course navigators would end their voyage many (tens of) miles from their destination.
Using Mercator's charts they could draw rhumb lines with a straight-edge and so keep a constant compass heading from origin to destination. The one disadvantage was that the rhumb line was not the shortest route; it is not a Great Circle. They didn't know how to follow a great circle by continuously (or repeatedly) changing their compass heading.
Falconer, in 1815, pointed out that it was Edward Wright, in 1590, who first "gave" (proposed, published?) the principles of Mercator's charts.
Crane makes no mention of Edward Wright.
Merchant marine, mariner, navy, ship
n The planet with an orbit closest to the sun.
The Prime meridian passes through the North pole, Greenwich (in East London) and the South pole, and is the centre of Time Zone zero. The meridian 15° to the East is the centre of Time Zone (UT+1) or (in nautical terms) -0100hrs. The meridian 180° to the East (and the West) is the International Date line.
The spaces between the lines of a net. More specifically, the size of the spaces.
n The place where sailors gather to eat and yarn.
n A group of sailors who eat together.
n An unsightly array of debris.
n A person who carries messages.
n The anchor cable of a square-rigged ship was massive; as much as 20" in diameter: too big to wrap around a capstan or windlass. A continuous cable (voyol or messenger) was wrapped around the capstan and ranged alongside the anchor cable, to which it was nipped by lengths of braided line. As the capstan was turned the voyol, nipped to the cable, drew the cable aboard. The youngest members of the crew (often children of 10 to 15) constantly carried the nippers from the inboard part of the cable forward so that the nipper-men could attach them again. These children became known as ‘nippers’.
The watch between midnight and 0400 (ship’s time).
Similar devices buried a few inches below ground are land-mines.
n A deep hole in the ground dug for the purpose of extracting valuable minerals.
v To mine. To lay explosive devices in the sea (or the ground); or to dig deep holes in the ground.
Falconer, in 1815, described a missile as "any weapon thrown by hand, or projected, and which strikes at a distance . . .". This would have included a spear, or musket ball, or cannon ball.
In the early 21st century the definition also includes powered ballistic weapons such as mortar rounds, shells and Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles as well as hand grenades.
When a square-rigged ship changes tack* by passing its bows through the wind the sails are necessarily, at some point in time, aback. At this point the ship may stop, and fail to fall off on the other tack: it has ‘missed stays’. It may remain aback, ‘in irons’, or it may fall off onto the previous tack, or the captain may choose to club-haul or box-haul.
A modern, fore-and-aft rigged boat rarely misses stays.
Some sailors refer to changing tack as ‘staying’ the boat.
* With the wind on the starboard side the lower right-hand corner of the course sail would be the tack, drawn forward by a bowline and tacked down by a tackline: the lower left-hand corner would be the clew, drawn aft by the sheet. In turning the ship to put the wind on the port side, the tack of each course sail would become the clew, and vice versa.
Airborne water droplets which reduce visibility to less than two miles.
An adjective which describes the aftermost mast, and the rigging and sails associated with it. The mizzen yards, gaffs, booms and sails are carried on the mizzen mast and are controlled by the mizzen braces or sheet(line)s.
Brigs have only two masts, both carrying square-rigged sails, the after mast being the mizzen. However, the snow brig carried a third mast (known as the snow mast), close abaft the mizzen mast, to carry a spanker.
In the 12th, 13th & 14th centuries ships tended to have only one mast.
In the Mediterranean an additional mast became the "mat de misaine", or, in Italian, "mezzana", or foremast ahead of the mainmast. In Northern Europe the extra mast was added aft, but was still called the "mizzen" mast. Later, when some ships had 4 mast, the mast abaft the mizzen mast would be called the bonaventure mizzen mast. (Chatterton)
DSC (Digital Selective Calling) radios use the MMSI number of the vessel as an identifier. If the MMSI number of a vessel is entered into the keypad of the DSC radio the 'phone rings' only in the vessel identified. The ensuing conversation, by VHF radio, can be heard by any VHF radio within range.
People fall overboard for many reasons, most usually carelessness. Being knocked overboard by the boom reveals carelessness on the parts of the skipper, the helmsman and of the MOB. Falling between the boat and the dinghy, or between the quay and the boat reveals carelessness, drunkenness or tiredness. Falling overboard whilst working the foredeck reveals carelessness in the use of a harness and tether.
If any of the rest of the crew see the MOB the boat can usually be brought back to the scene to attempt a rescue.
Moderate visibility is between 2 and 5 miles.
An instrument, used with one eye, for seeing long distances; for making distant objects seem larger and closer.
'Binocular' is (was) an adjective to describe a pair of eyepieces so that an optical instrument (such as a microscope or telescope) could be used with two eyes. 'Binocular telescope' was quickly nominalised to 'binocular'.
'Monocular' was used to describe a single set of lenses, as in half of a binocular. It is either a free-standing noun, or was immediately nominalised; I have no evidence that the term 'monocular telescope' was ever used.
A monsoon climate is characterised by a dramatic seasonal change in direction of the prevailing winds which brings a marked change in rainfall. Monsoons lead to distinct wet and dry seasons in many areas throughout the tropics and are most often associated with the Indian Ocean.
On the Indian sub-continent the 'monsoon season' is associated with heavy rain and high humidity.
A satellite, or secondary planet which orbits from West to East around the Earth-moon barycentre in 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes and 12 seconds, at a mean distance of 384,402 km (238,856 mi). The orbit is inclined at 5.14° to the ecliptic and at 23.4° to the Earth's equator.
A triangular sail set between the truck of the royal mast and the yardarms of the royal sails. Before the 15th century, the topgallant sail had no yard and was similar to the later moonraker. (Masefield)
n Folkard, in 1906, wrote that “A vessel riding by two or more anchors in different directions is said to be moored. A boat’s moorings consist of a strong mooring-chain, the two ends of which are anchored in different directions; a smaller chain, called a bridle, is secured to the mooring-chain . . ., and a buoy is attached to the upper part of the bridle, to mark . . . the spot where the moorings lie.” Falconer, in 1815, defined mooring as riding to two anchors, one from each bow. He also described mooring chains (see below) and swinging moorings. Tripp, writing early in the early 20th Century, moored with a bower anchor and a kedge from the stern.
The change in the intervening century is that there are many more moorings, and that many more boats may be moored to one mooring-chain between two anchors. A row of moorings along a single, long mooring-chain is a trot.
Above right, Welkin is aground in the mud at West Mersea. A mooring chain runs from the right foreground to the middle background; its anchors cannot be seen. A row of mooring buoys is attached by pendant chains to the ground chain: boats, aground, are moored to the buoys. Boats may be attached to two buoys, one forward and one aft or to one by the bows on a swinging mooring. This is a half-tide mooring. Local convention says that these boats do not use anchor balls or lights.
Boats and ships also moor alongside wharfs. The recommended method for placing mooring warps is shown in the diagram. There are breast ropes at 2 and 5. The springs 1 and 4 prevent the boat surging aft: the springs 3 and 6 prevent her surging forward.
v To moor.
Between midnight (0000) and 0800 (local time). The morning watch is from 0400 to 0800 (ship’s time).
n A surface accumulation of fungal mycelium, which grows because air and moisture (dampness) are available.
vb To mouse a hook is to bind small cordage around the mouth of the hook to prevent it falling off the ring to which it is hooked.
To mouse a shackle is to work wire (usually Monel) through the eye of the pin and the ring of the shackle to prevent the pin unscrewing.
During the "breeze at Spithead" sailors in the Royal Navy effectively went on strike for better pay and conditions.
The mutiny at the Nore was more serious, with officers being killed, and more political with sailors demanding that the government make peace with France.
Mutiny is a very serious offence.
n The opening in the end of a gun barrel from which the bullet is fired.
n The snout of an animal. The part, including mouth and nose, which projects forward in animals such as dogs.
n A basket-like device which covers the snout of (typically) a dog to prevent it biting.
vb To muzzle is to prevent a person from speaking or an animal from biting or making a noise (such as barking).
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